Incheon, South Korea
Incheon Metropolitan City has an average annual temperature of 12.7C and annual precipitation of 1300 mm. The city is geographically located in the centre of a large west coast port city of Northeast Asia where it acts as a gateway to South Korea. To the west of Incheon Metropolitan City
lies the Yellow Sea with the Han River, one of the main rivers of South Korea, located to its north.
Incheon consists of mainly low lying land with gentle slopes, and because of this, it is vulnerable to flooding. It has a population of 2.7 million and contributes 5% of South Korea’s economy.
In Incheon Metropolitan City, more than 90% of the occurring natural disasters are water-related. The total catchment area of the city comprises 45,121.82 hectares where the runoff occurs.
Although human casualties have decreased through the years (based on 1999 – 2006), the property damage total still remains very high. Therefore, there is a need for new strategiesand/or solutions to reduce these losses through better flood prevention methods.
Part of the East Asian monsoonal region, South Korea has a temperate climate with four distinct seasons. The movement of air masses from the Asian continent exerts greater influence on South Korea's weather than does air movement from the Pacific Ocean. Winters are usually long, cold, and dry, whereas summers are short, hot, and humid. Spring and autumn are pleasant but short in duration. Seoul's mean temperature in January is −5 to −2.5 °C (23 to 28 °F); in July the mean temperature is about 22.5 to 25 °C (73 to 77 °F). Because of its southern and seagirt location, Jeju Island has warmer and milder weather than other parts of South Korea. Mean temperatures on Jeju range from 2.5 °C (36.5 °F) in January to 25 °C (77 °F) in July.
South Korea is less vulnerable to typhoons than Japan, Taiwan, the east coast of China, or the Philippines. From one to three typhoons can be expected per year. Typhoons usually pass over South Korea in late summer, especially in August, and bring torrential rains. Flooding occasionally causes considerable damage. In September 1984, record floods caused the deaths of 190 people and left 200,000 homeless.
Seoul, officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest city of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is one of the largest cities in the world. The Seoul National Capital Area is the world's second largest metropolitan area with over 24.5 million inhabitants, which includes the Incheon metropolis and most of Gyeonggi province. Almost half of South Korea's population live in the Seoul National Capital Area, and nearly a quarter in Seoul itself, making it the country's foremost economic, political, and cultural centre.